Category: 4th Std.


Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science



Source:- Wikipedia



In India there are lots of different types of houses.

Rich people’s houses

rich home

                                       Very rich people live in very big houses and have servants and drivers to do all the hard work for them. They usually live in the cities where they have very good jobs that pay them lots of money. They have electricity and running water so they have lots of the things that we have in our houses, televisions, bathrooms, hairdryers and probably even a computer.

 City houses

Lots of people go to the cities to try to find work but can sometimes only find poorly paid jobs and than they end up living in tower blocks in the middle of the cities or on the edge of them. The tower blocks have lots of people living in them so they have to share a bathroom and kitchen with lots of other people. They do usually have water and electricity but they don’t have all the technology that we have. The houses on the edge of the cities tend to be smaller but still cramped together and are no nicer to live in.

Lots of people go to the city to find a job and can’t so they end up sleeping on the street instead.

Village houses

village house

                    ¾ of the population of India live in villages. The houses there are usually made from a mixture of clay, straw and cow dung. This mixture goes really hard when it is dry so it is very useful and also cheaper than bricks or stone. The houses have thick walls and this keeps the houses cool in the summer because the heat can’t get through. Even though the families do all they can to keep cool they often sleep outside on the flat roofs where it is breezy and cool at night.

Most houses in India have 2 rooms and a courtyard where they keep their animals if they have any. They don’t have lots of furniture in village houses just some shelves or storage bins to keep their food in and some mats for the floor where people can sit.

The kitchen is usually in the corner of 1 room and has a stove low down on the floor. They gave very few tools for the kitchen, some pots and pans, utensils and a flat pan for cooking chapattis. The floor is kept very clean because they get food ready while sitting or crouching on the floor. A traditional Indian family eats on the floor in a circle but the men eat first.

These houses do not have running water, indoor toilets, fridges and hairdryers like we do. Most houses have a radio but if they want to watch the television they have to go to their local community centre with lots of other people. More and more villages are beginning to get their own electricity supply.

Houses near water

Houses in India near water are in danger of being flooded when the monsoon rain comes. Some farmers are lucky and can afford to build houses that are higher up on stilts so that when the rain comes it washes underneath and doesn’t destroy the houses. These houses are very useful but more expensive than ordinary village houses.

Street houses

Some people in India are very poor and don’t live in a village or in the middle of towns. They build their houses where ever they can and build them out of whatever they can find. They use bits of old wood, fabric, straw, anything at all.


Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science

Topic:- Co-ordination

Subtopic:-Co-ordination in Human

Source:- Wikipedia


Co-ordination in Human


                     There are two types of coordination of activities in humans. These are:
Nervous system
Endocrine system
In human beings, nervous system and endocrine system work together to control and coordinate all our activities such as our physical actions, our thinking processes and our emotional behaviour.
Human Nervous System
Nervous system is composed of two main components:
Central nervous system(CNS): It includes brain and spinal cord
Peripheral system (PNS): It includes all the nerves arise from brain (cranial nerves) and Spinal cord (spinal nerves).These nerves are present outside the CNS and connect brain and spinal cord to all parts of the body.
Structure of Neuron
Nervous system is made of special cells called neurons. The neurons carry messages in the form of electrical impulses or nerve impulses. A neuron has three components: Cell body or cyton, Dendrites, Axon.

sink als diagram motor neurons[1]

Cell body or cyton :- The cell body contains a nucleus and cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm are embedded different cell organelles like mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum etc. 2.From the cell body extend out two kinds of protoplasmic extensions the cell body – dendrites and axons.
Dendrites:-Dendrites are short and branched processes. They carry the impulse towards the cell body.
1. It is a long process, may be several centimeters long. It conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body.
2. The axon has an insulating and protective sheath of myelin around it.
Neurons are of three types:
Sensory neurons: They carry nerve impulses from receptors to the central nervous system. They carry stimulus from receptors.
Receptors → CNS
Motor neurons: They take nerve impulses from CNS to effector organs that may be a muscle or gland.
CNS → Effector
Interneuron or relay neurons: They are found only in CNS and make links between sensory and motor neurons.
There is no physical connection between the neurons at synapse and so the impulse has to pass through the synapse to be passed on to other neurons.
How do we detect that we are touching a hot object?
                     All information from our environment is detected by the tips of dendrite of nerve cells. These receptors are usually located in our sense organs, such as the inner ear, the nose, the tongue, the skin and the eyes.
1. Hot object is a stimulus. When a stimulus acts on a receptor, a chemical reaction is set off that creates electrical impulse.
2.This impulse travels from the dendrite to the cell body and then travel along its axon.
3.At the end of axon synapse is present; a microscopic gap between two neurons, thus electrical impulse can not directly pass between two neurons.
4. At the end of axon, the releases small amount of a chemical substance called acetylcholine into the synapse. This chemical substance starts a similar electric impulse in the dendrite of the next neuron. As acetylcholine transmits impulse of one neuron to another so it is called as neurotransmitter.
5. In this way it can be transmitted to a third neuron and so on. Finally reaches to the brain. The motor neurons bring message from the brain in the form of electrical impulse to the effector organs like muscles and glands.

Water Purification

Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science


Subtopic:-Water Purification

Source:- Wikipedia


Water Purification

                           Water covers most of the earth’s surface, but that doesn’t mean most of it is safe to drink. Much of the fresh water you find in streams, lakes and ponds contains harmful microorganisms and must first be purified before anyone can consume it. In the very circumstances that put you in contact with questionable water (being in the wilderness, surviving or recovering from a disaster, or living in a part of the world where water isn’t purified for you) the last thing you want to do is to get sick. Knowing the different methods of water purification can help you make the best decision on how to create safe drinking water.

1] Boiling


Boiling water is the simplest way to rid it of impurities, since most microorganisms and bacteria can’t survive the extreme temperatures of a hard boil. This method can come in particularly handy while camping, since the only thing you need to purify water this way is a fire and a pot or other device to contain the water. According to “The Backpacker’s Field Manual,” water temperatures greater than 185 degrees Fahrenheit kill all pathogens within a few minutes. When water reaches the boiling point—212 degrees Fahrenheit—all harmful elements in the water should be gone, giving you safe drinking water when it cools down.

2] Ultraviolet Light


There are some technologies that  uses ultraviolet light to rid water of impurities. Not only does the process eliminate pathogens, but it also rids water of harmful chemicals such as pharmaceutical by product and common household detergents.

3] Chemicals

You can use some chemicals to purify water, as noted in “The Backpacker’s Field Manual.” Iodine is one of the most common and handy chemicals that purifies water, and it can be formed into small pills to take along as you go hiking. Put these pills into the drawn water to kill bacteria and make it safe for drinking. Chlorine is commonly used in pools to destroy bacteria and is also an alternative for purifying water for people allergic to iodine.

4] Filtration

Another common method of water purification is the filtration method. Passing water through several layers containing porous materials helps catch harmful substances and organisms. Membrane filtration, for example, passes water at high pressure through a thin membrane, which prevents certain microorganisms, minerals and other organic material from getting through and into your cup. There are multiple filter types on the market, including faucet-mounted units and various size pitchers. Many of them use a combination of a ceramic element and activated carbon. The ceramic element filters out small particles and organic matter, while the activated carbon removes unpleasant odors, tastes, and some chemicals, such as the trihalomethane that can form during chlorination. Because filtration does not generally eliminate bacteria or viruses

5] Reverse Osmosis


Another option is the use of a reverse osmosis unit, which removes contaminants by forcing pressurized water through a semi-permeable membrane. The University of Missouri Extension notes that this method is very effective at removing salts, metals, minerals and most organisms, but is not particularly efficient, as it produces a large amount of waste water. Home-based units are expensive and require ongoing maintenance and testing. Most systems are designed to work in conjunction with a ceramic element and activated carbon.

6] Distillation

Distillation is a method of water purification that works by boiling water, capturing now-purified steam, and allowing it to condense. The process removes bacteria, minerals and some chemicals. However, distillation equipment is very expensive. It is also a rather slow process, and the University of Missouri Extension reports that most units only produce two to five gallons per day.

Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science


Subtopic:-Water Conservation at Home

Source:- Wikipedia


Water Conservation at Home

1. Check taps and pipes for leaks
A small drip from a worn tap washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day. Larger leaks can waste hundreds of gallons.

3. Check your toilets for leaks
Put a little food coloring in your toilet tank. If, without flushing, the color begins to appear in the bowl within 30 minutes, you have a leak that should be repaired immediately. Most replacement parts are inexpensive and easy to install.

4. Use your water meter to check for hidden water leaks
                         Read the house water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is being used. If the meter does not read exactly the same, there is a leak.

5. Install water-saving shower heads and low-flow tap aerators
Inexpensive water-saving low-flow shower heads or restrictors are easy for the homeowner to install. Also, long, hot showers can use five to ten gallons every unneeded minute. Limit your showers to the time it takes to soap up, wash down and rinse off. “Low-flow” means it uses less than 2.5 gallons per minute.
You can easily install a Shower Start showerhead, or add a Shower Start converter to existing showerheads, which automatically pauses a running shower once it gets warm. Also, all household taps should be fit with aerators. This single best home water conservation method is also the cheapest.

6. Insulate your water pipes.
                         It’s easy and inexpensive to insulate your water pipes with pre-slit foam pipe insulation. You’ll get hot water faster plus avoid wasting water while it heats up.

7. Take shorter showers.
One way to cut down on water use is to turn off the shower after soaping up, then turn it back on to rinse. A four-minute shower uses approximately 20 to 40 gallons of water.

8. Turn off the water after you wet your toothbrush
                         There is no need to keep the water running while brushing your teeth. Just wet your brush and fill a glass for mouth rinsing.

9. Rinse your razor in the sink
Fill the sink with a few inches of warm water. This will rinse your razor just as well as running water, with far less waste of water.

10. Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads
                        Automatic dishwashers and clothes washers should be fully loaded for optimum water conservation. Most makers of dishwashing soap recommend not pre-rinsing dishes which is a big water savings.
With clothes washers, avoid the permanent press cycle, which uses an added 20 liters (5 gallons) for the extra rinse. For partial loads, adjust water levels to match the size of the load. Replace old clothes washers. New Energy Star rated washers use 35 – 50% less water and 50% less energy per load. If you’re in the market for a new clothes washer, consider buying a water-saving frontload washer.

11. Minimize use of kitchen sink garbage disposal units
In-sink ‘garburators’ require lots of water to operate properly, and also add considerably to the volume of solids in a septic tank which can lead to maintenance problems. Start a compost pile as an alternate method of disposing food waste.

12. When washing dishes by hand, don’t leave the water running for rinsing
                   If your have a double-basin, fill one with soapy water and one with rinse water. If you have a single-basin sink, gather washed dishes in a dish rack and rinse them with a spray device or a panful of hot water. Dual-swivel aerators are available to make this easier. If using a dishwasher, there is usually no need to pre-rinse the dishes.

13. Don’t let the tap run while you clean vegetables
                      Just rinse them in a stoppered sink or a pan of clean water. Use a dual-setting aerator.

14. Keep a bottle of drinking water in the fridge.
Running tap water to cool it off for drinking water is wasteful. Store drinking water in the fridge in a safe drinking bottle. If you are filling water bottles to bring along on outdoor hikes, consider buying a Life Straw personal water filter which enables users to drink water safely from rivers or lakes or any available body of water.


Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science

Topic:-The Human Body-Bones, Joints & Muscles

Subtopic:-Types of Joints

Source:- Wikipedia



Types of Joints



A joint is the region where two or more bones make contact, providing mechanical support, and allowing movement in some cases. Joints are classified by the way bones are connected together, and also by the degree of movement between the bones. The four primary types of joint in the human body are hinge, ball and socket, pivot and gliding.


Joints in the human body are considered fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial. Fibrous joints are connected by dense connective tissue, composed primarily of collagen. Cartilaginous joints are connected entirely by cartilage tissue, and synovial joints are composed of bone coated with a fluid-secreting membrane, which reduces friction in moving joints, according to “Gray’s Anatomy.”



Movement in a hinge joint is permitted in only one single plane of action like the opening and closing of a door, and the two moving bones are connected with incredibly strong ligaments. Examples include the elbow, the joints between the fingers, and the knee, which is the largest hinge joint in the human body, according to the website Theodora.



The rounded or ball-shaped surface of one bone fits into the concave or cup-shaped depression of another bone to form a synovial joint, which allows 360-degree movement. Examples of ball and socket joints include the hip, where the ball-shaped head of the femur fits into the cup-like cavity of the pelvis, according to the Hip and Knee Institute.



Turning of pivot joints usually occurs in a half circle, facilitated by the rotation of one bone around another. A pivot joint is formed by the meeting of two bones, one being a bony cylinder, and the other a ring-like structure constructed of bone and ligament. One example of a pivot joint is at the base of the skull, joining the first vertebra of the spine to the second vertebra, allowing the head to rotate, because the first vertebra is joined to the skull. Another example is the ulna, and radius bones in the forearm, according to an article published in November 2005 in the “Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health.”



When the bony surfaces that hold a synovial joint together are flat or only slightly rounded, the joint is referred to as gliding. A gliding joint permits a wide range of motion, facilitated by the sliding of one bone past another. The vertebrae of the spine and the eight small bones that form the wrist are examples of gliding joints, according to an article published in January 2001 in the “Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health.”


condyloid joint


Some bones contain oval projection at its end which is termed as condyle. This condyle totally fits in the depression or the hollow space of the oppositely placed bone. This is condyloid joint. More elaborately, it can be explained as the position between the oval projection or the condyle of bone and hollow space available in the oppositely placed You do not have access to view this node. This together fits in such a way that movement becomes possible. Although the condyloid joint allows extension, flexion and lateral You do not have access to view this node, it cannot rotate freely.




Saddle joints are formed when the two bones making the joint both have complementary concave and convex surfaces. Thumb joint is the only saddle joint in the body. In a gliding (or plane) joint flat or relatively flat surfaces oppose each other allowing sliding or twisting without any circular movement. The joints formed between carpals of wrist and tarsals in ankles are examples of gliding joints. The ellipsoid joint is a biaxial joint, allowing for movement in two different planes (flexion and extension; abduction and adduction). The saddle joint, like the ellipsoid joint must allow for movement in the same two planes; however, it also allows for some rotation. And lastly, gliding (plane) joints, are non-axial, as they do not function about an axis. They are shaped this way, however, because the bones must slide over each other.


Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science

Topic:-The Human Body-Bones, Joints & Muscles


Source:- Wikipedia



A top-down view of skeletal muscle

                                   Muscle is a soft tissue of animals. Muscle cells contain  protein  filaments that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and cause motion. They are primarily responsible for maintenance of and changes in posture, locomotion of the organism itself, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.

Muscle tissues are derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. They are classified as skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscles. Cardiac and smooth muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought and is necessary for survival. Voluntary contraction of the skeletal muscles is used to move the body and can be finely controlled. Examples are movements of the eye, or gross movements like the quadriceps muscle of the thigh.

Muscles are predominantly powered by the oxidation of fats and  carbohydrates, but anaerobic chemical reactions are also used, particularly by fast twitch fibers. These chemical reactions produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules which are used to power the movement of the myosin heads.The term muscle is derived from the Latin musculus meaning “little mouse” perhaps because of the shape of certain muscles or because contracting muscles look like mice moving under the skin.


The anatomy of muscles includes both gross anatomy, comprising all the muscles of an organism, and, on the other hand, microanatomy, which comprises the structures of a single muscle.

Types of tissue


Types of muscle (shown at different magnifications)

                          Muscle tissue is a soft tissue, and is one of the four fundamental types of tissue present in animals. There are three types of muscle tissue recognized in vertebrates:

  • Skeletal muscle or “voluntary muscle” is anchored by tendons (or by aponeuroses at a few places) to bone and is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion and in maintaining posture. Though this postural control is generally maintained as an unconscious reflex, the muscles responsible react to conscious control like non-postural muscles. An average adult male is made up of 42% of skeletal muscle and an average adult female is made up of 36% (as a percentage of body mass).
  • Smooth muscle or “involuntary muscle” is found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach,intestines, bronchi, uterus, urethra, bladder, blood vessels, and the arrector pili in the skin (in which it controls erection of body hair). Unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle is not under conscious control.
  • Cardiac muscle is also an “involuntary muscle” but is more akin in structure to skeletal muscle, and is found only in the heart.

Cardiac and skeletal muscles are “striated” in that they contain sarcomeres and are packed into highly regular arrangements of bundles; smooth muscle has neither. While skeletal muscles are arranged in regular, parallel bundles, cardiac muscle connects at branching, irregular angles (called intercalated discs). Striated muscle contracts and relaxes in short, intense bursts, whereas smooth muscle sustains longer or even near-permanent contractions. Skeletal (voluntary) muscle is further divided into two broad types: slow twitch and fast twitch:

  • Type I, slow twitch, or “red” muscle, is dense with capillaries and is rich in mitochondria and myoglobin, giving the muscle tissue its characteristic red color. It can carry more oxygen and sustain aerobic activity using fats or carbohydrates as fuel.[4] Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time but with little force.
  • Type II, fast twitch muscle, has three major subtypes (IIa, IIx, and IIb) that vary in both contractile speed and force generated. Fast twitch fibers contract quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly, sustaining only short, anaerobic bursts of activity before muscle contraction becomes painful. They contribute most to muscle strength and have greater potential for increase in mass. Type IIb is anaerobic, glycolytic, “white” muscle that is least dense in mitochondria and myoglobin. In small animals (e.g., rodents) this is the major fast muscle type, explaining the pale color of their flesh.

The density of mammalian skeletal muscle tissue is about 1.06 kg/liter. This can be contrasted with the density of adipose tissue (fat), which is 0.9196 kg/liter. This makes muscle tissue approximately 15% denser than fat tissue.


All muscles derive from paraxial mesoderm. The paraxial mesoderm is divided along the embryo’s length into somites, corresponding to the segmentation of the body (most obviously seen in the vertebral column. Each somite has 3 divisions, sclerotome (which forms vertebrae), dermatome (which forms skin), and myotome(which forms muscle). The myotome is divided into two sections, the epimere and hypomere, which form  epaxial  and hypaxial muscles, respectively. Epaxial muscles in humans are only the erector spinae and small intervertebral muscles, and are innervated by the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves. All other muscles, including limb muscles, are hypaxial muscles, formed from the hypomere, and inervated by the ventral rami of the spinal nerves.

During development, myoblasts (muscle progenitor cells) either remain in the somite to form muscles associated with the vertebral column or migrate out into the body to form all other muscles. Myoblast migration is preceded by the formation of connective tissue frameworks, usually formed from the somatic lateral plate mesoderm. Myoblasts follow chemical signals to the appropriate locations, where they fuse into elongate skeletal muscle cells.



Internal microanatomy of a muscle.

                          Skeletal muscles are sheathed by a tough layer of connective tissue called the epimysium. The epimysium anchors muscle tissue to tendons at each end, where the epimysium becomes thicker and collagenous. It also protects muscles from friction against other muscles and bones. Within the epimysium are multiple bundles called fascicles, each of which contains 10 to 100 or more muscle fibers collectively sheathed by aperimysium. Besides surrounding each fascicle, the perimysium is a pathway for nerves and the flow of blood within the muscle. The threadlike muscle fibers are the individual muscle cells (myocytes), and each cell is encased within its own endomysium of collagen fibers. Thus, the overall muscle consists of fibers (cells) that are bundled into fascicles, which are themselves grouped together to form muscles. At each level of bundling, a collagenous membrane surrounds the bundle, and these membranes support muscle function both by resisting passive stretching of the tissue and by distributing forces applied to the muscle.[9]Scattered throughout the muscles are muscle spindles that provide sensory feedback information to the central nervous system.

This same bundles-within-bundles structure is replicated within the muscle cells. Within the cells of the muscle are myofibrils, which themselves are bundles of protein filaments. The term “myofibril” should not be confused with “myofiber”, which is a simply another name for a muscle cell. Myofibrils are complex strands of several kinds of protein filaments organized together into repeating units called sarcomeres. The striated appearance of both skeletal and cardiac muscle results from the regular pattern of sarcomeres within their cells. Although both of these types of muscle contain sarcomeres, the fibers in cardiac muscle are typically branched to form a network. Cardiac muscle fibers are interconnected by intercalated discs, giving that tissue the appearance of a syncytium. The filaments in a sarcomere are composed of actin and myosin.

Gross anatomy

The gross anatomy of a muscle is the most important indicator of its role in the body. One particularly important aspect of gross anatomy of muscles ispennation or lack thereof. In most muscles, all the fibers are oriented in the same direction, running in a line from the origin to the insertion. In pennate muscles, the individual fibers are oriented at an angle relative to the line of action, attaching to the origin and insertion tendons at each end. Because the contracting fibers are pulling at an angle to the overall action of the muscle, the change in length is smaller, but this same orientation allows for more fibers (thus more force) in a muscle of a given size. Pennate muscles are usually found where their length change is less important than maximum force, such as the rectus femoris.

Skeletal muscle is arranged in discrete muscles, an example of which is the biceps brachii. The tough, fibrous epimysium of skeletal muscle is both connected to and continuous with the tendons. In turn, the tendons connect to the periosteum layer surrounding the bones, permitting the transfer of force from the muscles to the skeleton. Together, these fibrous layers, along with tendons and ligaments, constitute the deep fascia of the body.

Muscular system

The muscular system consists of all the muscles present in a single body. There are approximately 650 skeletal muscles in the human body, but an exact number is difficult to define. The difficulty lies partly in the fact that different sources group the muscles differently and partly in that some muscles, such as palmaris longus, are not always present.The muscular system is one component of the musculoskeletal system, which includes not only the muscles but also the bones, joints, tendons, and other structures that permit movement.


The three types of muscle (skeletal, cardiac and smooth) have significant differences. However, all three use the movement of actin against myosin to create  contraction. In skeletal muscle, contraction is stimulated by electrical impulses transmitted by the nerves, the motoneurons (motor nerves) in particular. Cardiac and smooth muscle contractions are stimulated by internal pacemaker cells which regularly contract, and propagate contractions to other muscle cells they are in contact with. All skeletal muscle and many smooth muscle contractions are facilitated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.


The action a muscle generates is determined by the origin and insertion locations. The cross-sectional area of a muscle (rather than volume or length) determines the amount of force it can generate by defining the number of sarcomeres which can operate in parallel. The amount of force applied to the external environment is determined by lever mechanics, specifically the ratio of in-lever to out-lever. For example, moving the insertion point of the biceps more distally on the radius (farther from the joint of rotation) would increase the force generated during flexion (and, as a result, the maximum weight lifted in this movement), but decrease the maximum speed of flexion. Moving the insertion point proximally (closer to the joint of rotation) would result in decreased force but increased velocity. This can be most easily seen by comparing the limb of a mole to a horse – in the former, the insertion point is positioned to maximize force (for digging), while in the latter, the insertion point is positioned to maximize speed (for running).

Energy consumption

Muscular activity accounts for much of the body’s energy consumption. All muscle cells produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules which are used to power the movement of the myosin heads. Muscles conserve energy in the form of creatine phosphate which is generated from ATP and can regenerate ATP when needed with creatine kinase. Muscles also keep a storage form of glucose in the form of glycogen. Glycogen can be rapidly converted to glucose when energy is required for sustained, powerful contractions. Within the voluntary skeletal muscles, the glucose molecule can be metabolized anaerobically in a process called glycolysis which produces two ATP and two lactic acid molecules in the process (note that in aerobic conditions, lactate is not formed; instead pyruvate is formed and transmitted through the citric acid cycle).

Muscle cells also contain globules of fat, which are used for energy during aerobic exercise. The aerobic energy systems take longer to produce the ATP and reach peak efficiency, and requires many more biochemical steps, but produces significantly more ATP than anaerobic glycolysis. Cardiac muscle on the other hand, can readily consume any of the three macronutrients (protein, glucose and fat) aerobically without a ‘warm up’ period and always extracts the maximum ATP yield from any molecule involved. The heart, liver and red blood cells will also consume lactic acid produced and excreted by skeletal muscles during exercise. At rest, skeletal muscle consumes 54.4 kJ/kg (13.0 kcal/kg) per day. This is larger than adipose tissue (fat) at 18.8 kJ/kg (4.5 kcal/kg), and bone at 9.6 kJ/kg (2.3 kcal/kg).

Nervous control


Efferent leg

The efferent leg of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for conveying commands to the muscles and glands, and is ultimately responsible for voluntary movement. Nerves move muscles in response to voluntary and autonomic(involuntary) signals from the brain. Deep muscles, superficial muscles, muscles of the face and internal muscles all correspond with dedicated regions in the primary motor cortex of the brain, directly anterior to the central sulcus that divides the frontal and parietal lobes.

In addition, muscles react to reflexive nerve stimuli that do not always send signals all the way to the brain. In this case, the signal from the afferent fiber does not reach the brain, but produces the reflexive movement by direct connections with the efferent nerves in the spine. However, the majority of muscle activity is volitional, and the result of complex interactions between various areas of the brain.

Nerves that control skeletal muscles in mammals correspond with neuron groups along the primary motor cortex of the brain’s cerebral cortex. Commands are routed though the basal ganglia and are modified by input from the cerebellum before being relayed through the pyramidal tract to the spinal cord and from there to the motor end plate at the muscles. Along the way, feedback, such as that of the extra pyramidal system contribute signals to influence muscle tone and response.Deeper muscles such as those involved in posture often are controlled from nuclei in the brain stem and basal ganglia.

Afferent leg

The afferent leg of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for conveying sensory information to the brain, primarily from the sense organs like the skin. In the muscles, the muscle spindles convey information about the degree of muscle length and stretch to the central nervous system to assist in maintaining posture and joint position. The sense of where our bodies are in space is called proprioception, the perception of body awareness. More easily demonstrated than explained, proprioception is the “unconscious” awareness of where the various regions of the body are located at any one time. This can be demonstrated by anyone closing their eyes and waving their hand around. Assuming proper proprioceptive function, at no time will the person lose awareness of where the hand actually is, even though it is not being detected by any of the other senses.

Several areas in the brain coordinate movement and position with the feedback information gained from proprioception. The cerebellum and red nucleus in particular continuously sample position against movement and make minor corrections to assure smooth motion.


The efficiency of human muscle has been measured (in the context of rowing and cycling) at 18% to 26%. The efficiency is defined as the ratio of mechanical work output to the total metabolic cost, as can be calculated from oxygen consumption. This low efficiency is the result of about 40% efficiency of generating ATP from food energy, losses in converting energy from ATP into mechanical work inside the muscle, and mechanical losses inside the body. The latter two losses are dependent on the type of exercise and the type of muscle fibers being used (fast-twitch or slow-twitch).

For an overall efficiency of 20 percent, one watt of mechanical power is equivalent to 4.3 kcal per hour. For example, a manufacturer of rowing equipment shows burned calories as four times the actual mechanical work, plus 300 kcal per hour, which amounts to about 20 percent efficiency at 250 watts of mechanical output. The mechanical energy output of a cyclic contraction can depend upon many factors, including activation timing, muscle strain trajectory, and rates of force rise & decay. These can be synthesized experimentally using work loop analysis.


A display of “strength” (e.g. lifting a weight) is a result of three factors that overlap: physiological strength (muscle size, cross sectional area, available cross bridging, responses to training),neurological strength (how strong or weak is the signal that tells the muscle to contract), and mechanical strength (muscle’s force angle on the lever, moment arm length, joint capabilities).

Physiological strength

Vertebrate muscle typically produces approximately 25 N (5.6 lbf) of force per square centimeter of muscle cross-sectional area when isometric and at optimal length. Some invertebrate muscles, such as in crab claws, have much longer sarcomeres than vertebrates, resulting in many more sites for actin and myosin to bind and thus much greater force per square centimeter. The force generated by a contraction can be measured using either mechanomyography orphonomyography.

The strength of any given muscle, in terms of force exerted on the skeleton, depends upon length, shortening speed, cross sectional area, pennation,  sarcomere length,  myosin isoforms, and neural activation of motor units. Significant reductions in muscle strength can indicate underlying pathology, with the chart at right used as a guide.

The “strongest” human muscle

Since three factors affect muscular strength simultaneously and muscles never work individually, it is misleading to compare strength in individual muscles, and state that one is the “strongest”. But below are several muscles whose strength is noteworthy for different reasons.

  • In ordinary parlance, muscular “strength” usually refers to the ability to exert a force on an external object—for example, lifting a weight. By this definition, the masseter  or jaw muscle is the strongest. The 1992 Guinness Book of Records records the achievement of a bite strength of 4,337 N (975 lbf) for 2 seconds. What distinguishes the masseter is not anything special about the muscle itself, but its advantage in working against a much shorter lever arm than other muscles.
  • If “strength” refers to the force exerted by the muscle itself, e.g., on the place where it inserts into a bone, then the strongest muscles are those with the largest cross-sectional area. This is because the tension exerted by an individual skeletal muscle fiber does not vary much. Each fiber can exert a force on the order of 0.3 micro newton. By this definition, the strongest muscle of the body is usually said to be the quadriceps femoris or the gluteus maximus.
  • A shorter muscle will be stronger “pound for pound” (i.e., by weight) than a longer muscle. The myometrial layer of the uterus may be the strongest muscle by weight in the female human body. At the time when an infant is delivered, the entire human uterus weighs about 1.1 kg (40 oz). During childbirth, the uterus exerts 100 to 400 N (25 to 100 lbf) of downward force with each contraction.
  • The external muscles of the eye are conspicuously large and strong in relation to the small size and weight of the eyeball. It is frequently said that they are “the strongest muscles for the job they have to do” and are sometimes claimed to be “100 times stronger than they need to be.” However, eye movements (particularly saccades used on facial scanning and reading) do require high speed movements, and eye muscles are exercised nightly during rapid eye movement sleep.
  • The statement that “the tongue is the strongest muscle in the body” appears frequently in lists of surprising facts, but it is difficult to find any definition of “strength” that would make this statement true. Note that the tongue consists of eight muscles, not one.
  • The heart has a claim to being the muscle that performs the largest quantity of physical work in the course of a lifetime. Estimates of the power output of the human heart range from 1 to 5watts. This is much less than the maximum power output of other muscles; for example, the quadriceps can produce over 100 watts, but only for a few minutes. The heart does its work continuously over an entire lifetime without pause, and thus does “outwork” other muscles. An output of one watt continuously for eighty years yields a total work output of two and a half gigajoules.


Humans are genetically predisposed with a larger percentage of one type of muscle group over another. An individual born with a greater percentage of Type I muscle fibers would theoretically be more suited to endurance events, such as triathlons, distance running, and long cycling events, whereas a human born with a greater percentage of Type II muscle fibers would be more likely to excel at anaerobic events such as a 200 meter dash, or weightlifting.


Exercise is often recommended as a means of improving motor skills, fitness, muscle and bone strength, and joint function. Exercise has several effects upon muscles,  connective tissue, bone, and the nerves that stimulate the muscles. One such effect is muscle hypertrophy, an increase in size. This is used in bodybuilding.

Various exercises require a predominance of certain muscle fiber utilization over another. Aerobic exercise involves long, low levels of exertion in which the muscles are used at well below their maximal contraction strength for long periods of time (the most classic example being the marathon). Aerobic events, which rely primarily on the aerobic (with oxygen) system, use a higher percentage of Type I (or slow-twitch) muscle fibers, consume a mixture of fat, protein and carbohydrates for energy, consume large amounts of oxygen and produce little lactic acid.

Anaerobic exercise involves short bursts of higher intensity contractions at a much greater percentage of their maximum contraction strength. Examples of anaerobic exercise include sprinting and weight lifting. The anaerobic energy delivery system uses predominantly Type II or fast-twitch muscle fibers, relies mainly on ATP or glucose for fuel, consumes relatively little oxygen, protein and fat, produces large amounts of lactic acid and can not be sustained for as long a period as aerobic exercise. Many exercises are partially aerobic and partially anaerobic; for example, soccer involves a combination of both.

The presence of lactic acid has an inhibitory effect on ATP generation within the muscle; though not producing fatigue, it can inhibit or even stop performance if the intracellular concentration becomes too high. However, long-term training causes neo vascularization within the muscle, increasing the ability to move waste products out of the muscles and maintain contraction. Once moved out of muscles with high concentrations within the sarcomere, lactic acid can be used by other muscles or body tissues as a source of energy, or transported to the liver where it is converted back to pyruvate. In addition to increasing the level of lactic acid, strenuous exercise causes the loss of potassium ions in muscle and causing an increase in potassium ion concentrations close to the muscle fibres, in the interstitium. Acidification by lactic acid may allow recovery of force so that acidosis may protect against fatigue rather than being a cause of fatigue.

Delayed onset muscle soreness is pain or discomfort that may be felt one to three days after exercising and subsides generally within two to three days later. Once thought to be caused by lactic acid buildup, a more recent theory is that it is caused by tiny tears in the muscle fibers caused by eccentric contraction, or unaccustomed training levels. Since lactic acid disperses fairly rapidly, it could not explain pain experienced days after exercise.


Independent of strength and performance measures, muscles can be induced to grow larger by a number of factors, including hormone signalling, developmental factors, strength training, and disease. Contrary to popular belief, the number of muscle fibres cannot be increased through exercise. Instead, muscles grow larger through a combination of muscle cell growth as new protein filaments are added along with additional mass provided by undifferentiated satellite cells alongside the existing muscle cells. Muscle fibres have a limited capacity for growth through hypertrophy and some believe they split through  hyperplasia if subject to increased demand.

Biological factors such as age and hormone levels can affect muscle hypertrophy. During puberty in males, hypertrophy occurs at an accelerated rate as the levels of growth-stimulating hormones produced by the body increase. Natural hypertrophy normally stops at full growth in the late teens. As testosterone is one of the body’s major growth hormones, on average, men find hypertrophy much easier to achieve than women. Taking additional testosterone or other anabolic steroids will increase muscular hypertrophy.

Muscular, spinal and neural factors all affect muscle building. Sometimes a person may notice an increase in strength in a given muscle even though only its opposite has been subject to exercise, such as when a bodybuilder finds her left biceps stronger after completing a regimen focusing only on the right biceps. This phenomenon is called cross education.


Inactivity and starvation in mammals lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, a decrease in muscle mass that may be accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle cells as well as lower protein content. Muscle atrophy may also result from the natural aging process or from disease.

In humans, prolonged periods of immobilization, as in the cases of bed rest or astronauts flying in space, are known to result in muscle weakening and atrophy. Atrophy is of particular interest to the manned spaceflight community, since the weightlessness experienced in spaceflight results is a loss of as much as 30% of mass in some muscles. Such consequences are also noted in small hibernating mammals like the golden-mantled ground squirrels and brown bats.

During aging, there is a gradual decrease in the ability to maintain skeletal muscle function and mass, known as sarcopenia. The exact cause of sarcopenia is unknown, but it may be due to a combination of the gradual failure in the “satellite cells” which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival. Sarcopenia is a normal aspect of aging, and is not actually a disease state yet can be linked to many injuries in the elderly population as well as decreasing quality of life.

There are also many diseases and conditions which cause muscle atrophy. Examples include cancer and AIDS, which induce a body wasting syndrome called cachexia. Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are congestive heart disease and some diseases of the liver.


Neuromuscular diseases are those that affect the muscles and/or their nervous control. In general, problems with nervous control can cause spasticity or paralysis, depending on the location and nature of the problem. A large proportion of neurological disorders, ranging from cerebrovascular accident (stroke) and Parkinson’s disease to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, can lead to problems with movement or motor coordination.

Symptoms of muscle diseases may include weakness, spasticity, myoclonus  and myalgia. Diagnostic procedures that may reveal muscular disorders include testing creatine kinase levels in the blood and electromyography (measuring electrical activity in muscles). In some cases, muscle biopsy may be done to identify a myopathy, as well as genetic testing to identify DNA abnormalities associated with specific myopathies and dystrophies.

A non-invasive elastography technique that measures muscle noise is undergoing experimentation to provide a way of monitoring neuromuscular disease. The sound produced by a muscle comes from the shortening of actomyosin filaments along the axis of the muscle. During contraction, the muscle shortens along its longitudinal axis and expands across the transverse axis, producing vibrations at the surface.

Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science

Topic:-The Human Body-Bones, Joints & Muscles

Subtopic:-Function Of Human Bones

Source:- Wikipedia


Function Of Human Bones

Bones have eleven main functions:

1] Mechanical

  • Protection — bones can serve to protect internal organs, such as the skull protecting the brain or the ribs protecting the heart and lungs.
  • Structure — bones provide a frame to keep the body supported.
  • Movement — bones, skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints function together to generate and transfer forces so that individual body parts or the whole body can be manipulated in three-dimensional space. The interaction between bone and muscle is studied in biomechanics.
  • Sound transduction — bones are important in the mechanical aspect of overshadowed hearing.

2] Synthetic

  • Blood production — the marrow, located within the medullary cavity of long bones and interstices of cancellous bone, produces blood cells in a process called hematopoiesis.

3] Metabolic

  • Mineral storage — bones act as reserves of minerals important for the body, most notably calcium and phosphorus.
  • Growth factor storage — mineralized bone matrix stores important growth factors such as insulin-like growth factors, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic proteins and others.
  • Fat storage — the yellow bone marrow acts as a storage reserve of fatty acids.
  • Acid-base balance — bone buffers the blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts.
  • Detoxification — bone tissues can also store heavy metals and other foreign elements, removing them from the blood and reducing their effects on other tissues. These can later be gradually released for excretion.
  • Endocrine organ — bone controls phosphate metabolism by releasing fibroblast growth factor – 23 (FGF-23), which acts on kidneys to reduce phosphate re absorption. Bone cells also release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar (glucose) and fat deposition. Osteocalcin increases both the insulin secretion and sensitivity, in addition to boosting the number of insulin-producing cells and reducing stores of fat.



Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science

Topic:-Properties of Substance


Source:- Wikipedia





Steam and liquid water are two different forms of the same chemical substance, water.

                              In chemistry, a chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e. without breaking chemical bonds. It can be solid, liquid or gas.

Chemical substances are often called ‘pure’ to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon),  gold, table salt (sodium chloride) and refined sugar (sucrose). However, simple or seemingly pure substances found in nature can in fact be mixtures of chemical substances. For example, tap water may contain small amounts of dissolved sodium chloride and compounds containing iron, calcium and many other chemical substances.

Chemical substances exist as solids, liquids, gases, or plasma and may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure. Chemical reactions convert one chemical substance into another. Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not considered to be matter, and thus they are not “substances” in this regard.


Chemical substances (also called pure substances) may well be defined as “any material with a definite chemical composition” in an introductory general chemistry textbook. According to this definition a chemical substance can either be a pure chemical element or a pure chemical compound. But, there are exceptions to this definition; a pure substance can also be defined as a form of matter that has both definite composition and distinct properties. The chemical substance index published by CAS also includes several alloys of uncertain composition. Non-stoichiometric compounds are a special case (in inorganic chemistry) that violates the law of constant composition, and for them, it is sometimes difficult to draw the line between a mixture and a compound, as in the case of palladium hydride. Broader definitions of chemicals or chemical substances can be found, for example: “the term ‘chemical substance’ means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including – (i) any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature”

In geology, substances of uniform composition are called minerals, while physical mixtures (aggregates) of several minerals (different substances) are defined as rocks. Many minerals, however, mutually dissolve into solid solutions, such that a single rock is a uniform substance despite being a ‘mixture’. Feldspars are a common example:  anorthoclase is an alkali aluminum silicate, where the alkali metal is interchangeably either sodium or potassium.

Substances versus mixtures


All matter consists of various elements and chemical compounds, but these are often intimately mixed together. Mixtures contain more than one chemical substance, and they do not have a fixed composition. In principle, they can be separated into the component substances by purely mechanical processes. Butter, soil and wood are common examples of mixtures.

Grey iron metal and yellow sulphur are both chemical elements, and they can be mixed together in any ratio to form a yellow-grey mixture. No chemical process occurs, and the material can be identified as a mixture by the fact that the sulphur and the iron can be separated by a mechanical process, such as using a magnet to attract the iron away from the sulphur.

In contrast, if iron and sulphur are heated together in a certain ratio (1 atom of iron for each atom of sulphur, or by weight, 56 grams (1 mol) of iron to 32 grams (1 mol) of sulphur), a chemical reaction takes place and a new substance is formed, the compound iron(II) sulphide, with chemical formula FeS. The resulting compound has all the properties of a chemical substance and is not a mixture. Iron(II) sulphide has its own distinct properties such as melting and solubility, and the two elements cannot be separated using normal mechanical processes; a magnet will be unable to recover the iron, since there is no metallic iron present in the compound.

Naming and indexing

Every chemical substance has one or more systematic names, usually named according to the IUPAC rules for naming. An alternative system is used by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS). Many compounds are also known by their more common, simpler names, many of which predate the systematic name. For example, the long-known sugar glucose is now systematically named 6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol. Natural products and pharmaceuticals are also given simpler names, for example the mild pain-killer Naproxen is the more common name for the chemical compound (S)-6-methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid.

Chemists frequently refer to chemical compounds using chemical formulae or molecular structure of the compound. There has been a phenomenal growth in the number of chemical compounds being synthesized (or isolated), and then reported in the scientific literature by professional chemists around the world. An enormous number of chemical compounds are possible through the chemical combination of the known chemical elements. As of May 2011, about sixty million chemical compounds are known. The names of many of these compounds are often nontrivial and hence not very easy to remember or cite accurately. Also it is difficult to keep the track of them in the literature. Several international organizations like IUPAC and CAS have initiated steps to make such tasks easier. CAS provides the abstracting services of the chemical literature, and provides a numerical identifier, known as CAS registry number to each chemical substance that been reported in the chemical literature (such as chemistry journals and patents). This information is compiled as a database and is popularly known as the Chemical substances index. Other computer-friendly systems that have been developed for substance information, are: SMILES and the International Chemical Identifier or InChI.

Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science

Topic:- Our Clothes

Subtopic:-Types Of Clothing in India

Source:- Wikipedia

Types Of Clothing in India

                         Clothing in India varies from region to region depending on the ethnicity, geography, climate and cultural traditions of the people of that region. Historically, men and women’s clothing has evolved from simple Langotas and loincloths to cover the body to elaborate costumes not only used in daily wear but also on festive occasions as well as rituals and dance performances. In urban areas, western clothing is common and uniformly worn by people of all strata. India also has a great diversity in terms of weaves, fibers, colors and material of clothing. Color codes are followed in clothing based on the religion and ritual concerned. For instance, Hindus wear white clothes to indicate mourning while Parsis and Christians wear white to weddings.

Women’s clothing

In India, women’s clothing varies widely and is closely associated with the local culture, religion and climate. Traditional Indian clothing for women in the north and east are saris or gaghra cholis and (lehengas) while many south Indian women traditionally wear sari and children wear pattu pavadai. Saris made out of silk are considered the most elegant. Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay, is one of India’s fashion capitals. In many rural parts of India, traditional clothing is worn. Women wear a sari, a long sheet of colorful cloth, draped over a simple or fancy blouse. Little girls wear a pavada. Both are often patterned. Bindi is a part of women’s make-up. Indo-western clothing is the fusion of Western and Subcontinental fashion. Churidar, dupatta, Khara Dupatta,  gamchha,  kurta, mundum neriyathum, sherwani are among other clothes.

The traditional style of clothing in India varies with male or female distinctions. This is still followed in the rural areas, though is changing in the urban areas. Girls before puberty wear a long skirt (called langa/paawada in Andhra) and a short blouse, called a choli, above it.

Traditional Clothing



           6 metrs Sari                

bengali sari

       Bengali Sari                   

gujarati sari     

Gujarathi Sari


Nauwari(9 meters) Sari

                      A saree or sari is a female garment in the Indian subcontinent. A sari is a strip of unstitched cloth, ranging from four to nine metres in length,  that is draped over the body in various styles. There are various traditional styles of saree: Sambalpuri Saree from East, Kanchipuram from South, Paithani from West and Banarasi from North among others. The most common style is for the sari to be wrapped around the waist, with one end then draped over the shoulder baring the midriff. The sari is usually worn over a petticoat.  These are usually more dressy with a lot of embellishments such as mirrors or embroidery and may be worn on special occasions. Women in the armed forces, when wearing a sari uniform, don a half-sleeve shirt tucked in at the waist. Teenage girls wear half-sarees, a three piece set consisting of a langa, a choli and a stole wrapped over it like a saree. Women usually wear full sarees.

Saris are usually known with different names in different places. In Kerala, white saris with golden border, are known as kavanis and are worn on special occasions. A simple white sari, worn as a daily wear, is called a mundu. Saris are called pudavai in Tamil Nadu. In Karnataka, saris are called kupsas.

Ghagra Choli (lehenga choli)

ghagra choli

A Ghagra Choli or a Lehenga Choli is the traditional clothing of women in Rajasthan and Gujarat,  Punjabis also wear them and they are used in some of their folk dances. It is a combination of lehenga, a tight choli and a odhani. A lehenga is a form of long skirt which is pleated. It is usually embroidered or has a thick border at the bottom. A choli is a blouse shell garment, which is cut to fit to the body and has short sleeves and a low neck.

Different styles of ghagra cholis are worn by the women, ranging from a simple cotton lehenga choli as a daily wear, a traditional ghagra with mirrors embellished usually worn during navratri for the garba dance or a fully embroidered lehenga worn during marriage ceremonies by the bride.Popular among unmarried women other than shalwar kameez are Gagra choli and Langa odhani.

Salwar Kameez

The salwar kameez is the traditional wear of women in Punjab,  Haryana,   Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir and has become the most popular dress for females. It consists of loose trousers (the salwar) narrow at the ankles, topped by a tunic top (the kameez). It is often misnamed as “Punjabi suit” or simply “shalwar” in the north and “churidaar” in Southern India. Women generally wear a dupatta or odani (Veil) with salwar kameez to cover their head and shoulders. It was introduced by the Muslims and originates from the Islamic era or old Iranian culture. It is very common in Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is always worn with a scarf called a dupatta, which is used to cover the head and drawn over the bosom.

The material for the dupatta usually depends upon that of the suit, and is generally of cotton, georgette, silk, chiffon among others. This dress is worn by almost every teenage girl in lieu of western clothes. The salwar kameez is most common in the north western part of India. Many actresses wear the salwar kameez in Bollywood movies.

Churidaar Kurta

Chudidar Kurta

Churidaar is a version of salwar, which is loose up to knees and then fits the calf below. A salwar is a baggy pyjama with pleats which gets narrow at the ankles whereas churidaar fits below the knees with horizontal gathers near the ankles. Usually a long kurta, which goes below the knees, is worn with the churidaar.

Pattu Pavadai(Tamil) or Langa davani( Kannada) or Langa Oni (Telugu)

pattu pavadai for girls

Pattu Pavadai

                        Pattu Pavadai or Langa davani is a traditional dress in south India, usually worn by teenage and small girls. The pavada is a cone-shaped garment, usually of silk, that hangs down from the waist to the toes. It normally has a golden border at the bottom.Girls in south India often wear pattu pavadai or Langa davani during traditional functions.

Men’s clothing

Traditional Clothing

For men, traditional clothes are the Sherwani, Lungi, Kurta and Dhoti or Pajama. Also, most recently Pant and shirt have also been accepted as traditional Indian dress by the Government of India.



A dhoti is a six feet long white strip of cotton. This traditional attire is mainly worn by men in villages. It is held in place with the help of a belt, ornamental and embroidered or a flat and simple one, around the waist. In south India men wear long, white sarong like sheets of cloth known as Mundu. In north and central Indian languages like Hindi, Marathi and Oriya, these are called dhothi, while in Telugu they are called Pancha, in Tamil they are called veshti and in Kannada it is called Panche/Lungi. Over the dhoti, men wear shirts.



A person togged in a mundu

                           A Lungi, also known as sarong, is a traditional garment of India. A Mundu is a lungi except that, it is always white. It is either tucked in, over the waist, up to knee-length or is allowed to lay over and reach up to the ankle. It is usually tucked in when the person is working, in fields or workshops, and left open usually as a mark of respect, in worship places or when the person is around dignitaries.

Lungis, generally, are of two types: the open lungi and the stitched lungi. The open lungi is a plain sheet of cotton or silk, whereas, the stitched one has both of its open ends stitched together to form a tube like structure. Though mostly worn by men, elderly women also prefer lungi to other garments owing to its good aeration. It is mostly popular in south India, though people of Bangladesh, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Somalia also can be seen in lungis, because of the heat and humidity, which create an unpleasant climate for trousers, though trousers have now become common outside the house.



A Sherwani is a long coat-boss jacket fastened with buttons. It comes to just below the knees, somewhere high on the calf. The jacket has a Nehru collar, which is a collar that stands up.  The Sherwani is worn with tighter fitting pants or trousers called churidars. Churidars are trousers that are loose around the hips and thighs, but are tight and gathered around the ankle. Sherwani is usually worn during the wedding ceremonies by the groom and is usually cream, light ivory, or gold colored. It may be embroidered with gold or silver. A scarf is sometimes added to the sherwani.


The Indian turban or the pagri is worn in many regions in the country, incorporating various styles and designs depending on the place. Other types of headgear such as the Taqiyah and Gandhi cap are worn by different communities within the country to signify a common ideology or interest.



The Dastar, also known as pagri, is a turban worn by the Sikh community of India. Is a symbol of faith representing values such as valour, honour and spirituality among others. It is worn to protect the Sikh’s long, uncut hair, the Kesh which is one of the Five Ks of Sikhism. Over the years, the dastar has evolved into different styles pertaining to the various sects of Sikhism such as the Nihang and the Namdhari.


Pheta is the Marathi name for turbans worn in the state of Maharashtra. Its usually worn during traditional ceremonies and occasions. It was a mandatory part of clothing in the past and have evolved into various styles in different regions. The main types are the Puneri Pagadi, Kolhapuri and Mawali pheta.

Mysore Peta

mysur feta

Originally worn by the bums of Mysore during formal meeting in durbar and in ceremonial processions during festivals, and meeting with foreign dignitaries, the Mysore peta has come to signify the cultural tradition of the Mysore and Kodagu district. The Mysore University replaced the conventional mortarboard used in graduation ceremonies with the traditional peta.

Rajasthani pagari

Turbans in Rajasthan are called pagari. They are distinctive in style and colour, and indicate the caste, social class and region of the wearer. In the hot and dry regions, turbans are large and loose. The paggar is traditional in Mewar while the safa is to Marwar. The colour of the pagaris have special importance and so does the pagari itself. In the past, saffron stood for valour and chivalry. A white turban stood for mourning. The exchange of a turban meant undying friendship.

Gandhi cap

The Gandhi cap, a white coloured cap made of khadi was popularised by Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian independence movement. The practice of wearing a Gandhi cap was carried on even after independence and became a symbolic tradition for politicians and social activists. The cap has been worn throughout history in many states such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal and is still worn by many people without political significance.

Contemporary Clothing

Western clothing made its foray into the Indian society during the times of the British Raj. Indian professionals opted to wear western clothing due to its relative comfort or due to regulations set then. By the turn of the 21st century, both western and Indian clothing had intermingled creating a unique style of clothing for the typical urban Indian population. Women started wearing more comfortable clothing and exposure to international fashion led to a fusion of western and Indian styles of clothing. Following the economic liberalisation, more jobs opened up, and created a demand for formal wear.

Women’s clothing nowadays consist of both formal and casual wear such as gowns, pants, shirts and tops. Traditional Indian clothing such as the kurti have been combined with jeans to form part of casual attire. Fashion designers in India have blended several elements of Indian traditional designs into conventional western wear to create a unique style of contemporary Indian fashion. Both skirts and jeans are worn extensively by women in and around urban areas.

Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science

Topic:- Natural Resources

Subtopic:- Medicinal Plant

Source:- Wikipedia


Medicinal Plant

1] Tulsi

Tulsi or Ocimum sanctum is an annual plant which is generally found in the Indian sub-continent. It is regarded as one of the most sacred plants in India and is found in many Indian households. Almost all parts of tulsi plant can be consumed which includes leaves, flowers, seeds and bark. While there are many therapeutic benefits attributed to tulsi, some of the major benefits include those of a digestion aid and immune booster.

Tulsi Plant


  • Common name: Holy Basil, Sacred Basil
  • Sanskrit name: Tulasi
  • Hindi name: tulsi
  • Scientific name: Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum tenuiflorum
  •  Sub-categories –KrishnaTulasi, Shri Tulasi, Vana Tulasi


Tulsi plant can be found all overIndiaranging from the foot hills of the Himalayas in the north to the tropics in the south till Kanya Kumari. The plant generally grows in moist soil. It reaches a height of about 1½ feet. Tulsi belongs to the family of Lamiceae or the mint plants category.

Chemical constituents or active compounds

Tulsi contains chemical compounds such as eugenol, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, chlorophyll, caryophyllene, oleanolic acid and linolenic acid. Nutritional compounds found in tulsi include vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron and zinc.

Health benefits

Scientific research in the recent times has shed light on the therapeutic benefits of tulsi. Consuming tulsi regularly could impart several benefits such as following.

  • Boosts the immune system with its antimicrobial properties and fights against fevers, cough and cold.
  • Possesses anti-diabetic properties. It also helps in arresting blood cholesterol levels.
  • Protects your eyes against ocular diseases such as cataract, macular degeneration, glaucoma and opthalmia.
  • A very good home remedy for respiratory and lung diseases such as asthma and bronchitis.
  • Provides easy oral and dental care due to its antibacterial properties.
  • A good source of antioxidants which check the development of free radicals.
  • Very effective insect repellent with larvicidal properties against several insects.

2]  Turmeric

Turmeric is an herb from the ginger family that is most commonly used as spice to flavor South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. It is especially known as a major ingredient in curry powder and is used extensively in India and other Asian countries. The intense yellow pigment in turmeric has also been used as a coloring agent in fabrics as well as foods, such as mustards and cheeses.
Turmeric is often referred to as “Curcumin”, a type of phytochemical (a chemical compound found in plants, beneficial to human health) known as a polyphenol. It is turmeric’s main active ingredient and the source of turmeric’s medicinal benefits. The powerful healing properties of turmeric have made it an important herb in both Traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic Medicine. Research over the past several decades verifies the effectiveness of turmeric as an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer agent. It has been used to combat everything from skin disorders to gastrointestinal upset to arthritis to cancer.
Powerful Anti-Inflammatory Agent

The curcumin in turmeric works to prevent the forming of inflammatory compounds in the body, which helps reduce the effects of inflammation such as swelling and pain. This action results in a similar effect to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen, yet with less harmful side effects. It has helped to prevent and alleviate joint pain occurring in conditions such as rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. It not only prevented the onset of arthritis in most cases, but it also halted much of the joint deterioration in the rats that had already developed the disease. Curcumin in turmeric appears to slow the progression of Alzheimer’s, an inflammatory condition that seldom occurs among the elderly in populations that consume it on a regular basis.
Potential for Reducing Cancer
Turmeric contains antioxidants known as curcuminoids, one of which is five times more potent than vitamin E.  Such anti-oxidant power offers great protection against the work of free radicals in many conditions involving inflammation and oxidative damage, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Offsetting the oxidative damage from free radicals is particularly helpful in reducing cholesterol.  Cholesterol reduction in turn protects blood vessels from the build-up of plaque leading to heart attacks and strokes. A significant reduction of the type of free radicals that damage arterial walls was observed in the participants of one study who took 500 mg. of curcumin daily for only one week.
Numerous findings have emerged from extensive research over the past fifty years indicating that curcumin may help in the prevention and treatment of some forms of cancer. It is believed that properties in turmeric may prevent spreading of certain types of cancer cells within the body, as well as slow the growth of new blood vessels in tumors.
It is also thought that curcumin may block the growth of breast cancer cells and slow the progress of cervical cancer in its early stages.

Weight and Insulin Control

Turmeric also shows promise of improving glucose tolerance: people who were given this herb showed an increased production of insulin by the pancreas. In test tube experiments, extracts of turmeric enhanced the ability of insulin to metabolize blood glucose threefold.  A study done with mice published in the Journal of Nutrition revealed that curcumin might be of value in overcoming obesity. In this experiment, mice that were fed a high-fat diet and given curcumin supplements had reduced weight gain and lowered blood cholesterol levels. The findings suggest that dietary curcumin may have a beneficial role in preventing obesity.
Other Uses for Turmeric
Turmeric aids liver function and detoxification and is thought to prevent fatty acid accumulation in and around the organ. There is also some evidence to show that it promotes bile flow and helps to prevent and dissolve gallstones. It is also helpful for stimulating digestion and aiding in the assimilation of foods.
A topical preparation of turmeric in the form of a poultice or paste has been used to reduce inflammation and swelling due to sprains, wounds, bruises and insect bites. It also serves as a natural antiseptic for preventing infection and speeding up healing in cuts and burns. In India and China, a paste consisting of turmeric is placed directly onto lesions, measles, mumps and chicken pox. Another common use of turmeric is for providing relief from the pain and itching of skin disorders like eczema and psoriasis. Other traditional remedies use the herb for relieving everything from congestion and fever to diarrhea and colic.
3]  Neem


The antiviral antifungal properties of Neem make it all the more useful. Modern research also provides indication that it might in future be used much more widely. In Ayurvedic text Neem has been regarded as the “Sarva-roga-nivarini” as it keeps all disease away. The blood purification property of Neem made it favorite natural ingredient. Every part of Neem such as bark, seed oil, leaf, root, gum, seed kernels has medicinal properties and hence used in therapeutic preparations. Some of them are listed below:

  1. Neem oil – It is extracted from Neem seed. It has insecticidal property so used as pesticides, insecticides, fungicides and for other application.
  2. Neem leaves- It has great importance in Ayurveda. It is applied as the paste form in skin to cure skin problems. It is also beneficial for chicken pox. It is used to make Neem tea i.e. consumed to reduce fever due to Malaria and to treat irritated throat. Fresh Neem leaves are consumed to cure Diabetes. It also smoothening effect.
  3. Neem twig – It is used as a teeth cleaning brush in Indian sub continent. It is extremely beneficial for teeth.
  4. Neem seed cake – It is the left over part of Neem seed used to enrich the soil. It also reduces the nitrogen loss of soil. It is also used as nematicide.
  5. Neem extract has spermicidal properties, so it is used for making contraceptives.
  6. Neem enhances the body’s internal defense system. And boost our natural immunity.
  7. In addition to them, it is great to treat acne, psoriasis, eczema and other skin infections.

So we must, preserve and plant Neem and use it to our level based to create healthy world which is the goal of Ayurveda.



Different parts of Neem tree are being used extensively in manufacturing of soaps, skin creams/lotions, shampoos, toothpastes, beauty aids and toiletries. The Neem twigs are more commonly being used as antiseptic tooth brushes. In most cases Neem oil/extract is being used for making these cosmetics like soaps and tooth pastes etc.


It is in agriculture where most of the scientists focused their research for exploring the benefits of Neem for crop production. Because of those findings, Neem oil, Neem cake, leaves and other parts of Neem tree are being used quite extensively in the agriculture sector in different parts of world. Its main uses in the agriculture sector include being an insecticide in food storage, as soil amendment, fertilizer efficiency enhancer, and very effective foliar pesticide.

Food Storage

In all areas of tropics, much of the harvested food is lost during storage because of worms, beetles and other infestations. People do not prefer to use chemicals insecticides on stored grains in general and more specifically for food stored for their own consumption. For centuries, Neem oil has provided farmers with an effective remedy against such insects. A very light coating of Neem oil protects stored food crops for up to 20 months from all types of infestations with no deterioration or loss of palatability. Neem fresh leaves are also used on small scale for storage of food grain at home quite effectively, but this is being done on a small scale.

4] (Indian Gooseberry) Amla



Indian Gooseberry or amla benefits the circulatory system. It purifies blood, detoxifies the body, and strengthens the immune system. Moreover, amla improves the functioning of the liver and pancreas. It has a soothing effect on mind.The fruit, seeds, leaves, flowers, roots as well as bark of this plant have medicinal qualities. It is considered good for skin and hair, too. As it stimulates hair growth, Indian gooseberry (amla) is used in various shampoos and hair oils. It is sour and bitter in taste.

Native Region

Indian gooseberry or amla is native to India. This therapeutic herb belongs to the Phyllanthaceae family.

Healing Properties

Indian Gooseberry or amla has anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antimicrobial, astringent, carminative, hemostatic, aphrodisiac, refrigerant, vermifuge, diuretic, and laxative properties. It stimulates appetite, and cures indigestion, hyperacidity and heartburn. Simply chewing a few pieces of Indian gooseberry strengthens the teeth and gums. Rinsing the mouth with juice derived from this fruit cleanses the mouth and provides relief from bad breath.

It is an excellent source of vitamin C. Thus, amla boosts immunity and protects against infections. Plus, it balances stomach acids, improves food absorption, and regulates the functioning of nervous system. Indian gooseberry benefits in maintaining proper liver functioning and increasing hemoglobin. It fights against cell degeneration and cancers.

As the fruit helps in reducing blood sugar levels, it is considered good for controlling diabetes. Moreover, it lowers cholesterol and strengthens heart muscles.

In addition, when combined with certain other herbs, Indian gooseberry or Emblic myrobalan serves as an effective home remedy for cough, cold, asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory disorders. Furthermore, it facilitates in losing weight by boosting protein metabolism.

Besides, it is valuable in healing ailments eye disorders like conjunctivitis and glaucoma. Furthermore, it is useful in relieving the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. The root and bark of Indian gooseberry help in the treatment of minor hemorrhages. Some other important benefits of Indian gooseberry (amla) include stimulating hair follicles for faster hair growth  and  preventing premature greying of hair. Moreover, it enhances fertility, flushes out toxins, and nourishes the skin.

Medicinal Uses

• Regularly having a combination of Indian gooseberry juice and honey in the morning improves mental functioning. It improves eyesight and reduces intraocular tension, too. Moreover, it helps in blood purification.

• Soak some Indian gooseberries in water overnight. In the morning, crush the fruits in the solution, strain the liquid and drink it. Follow this procedure on a regular basis to lose weight and reduce obesity.

• When dealing with diabetes, regularly drink a cup of bitter gourd juice mixed with a tablespoon of amla juice to stimulate the pancreas and lower blood sugar levels. Follow this therapy for two months. Simply consuming raw amla fruit is also beneficial in this regard.

• Indian gooseberry or amla benefits in curing diarrhea and dysentery caused by infection. For this, you need to have a home medicine prepared from equal amounts of dried amla powder and lime. Mix sugar candy (misri) in this mixture and consume it.

• Consume a mixture of one teaspoon of dried amla powder and two teaspoons of jaggery daily, two times in a day for about a month. This one of the most efficient Indian gooseberry home remedies for rheumatism.

• Common digestive disorders during summers can be cured by taking warm water mixed with dried Indian gooseberry powder and black salt.

• When dealing with constipation and piles, soak two Indian gooseberries in water overnight. Next morning, mash them and strain the solution. Finally, add a teaspoon of honey in this home medicine and drink it.

• Having a little Indian gooseberry (amla) powder after meals reduces indigestion.

• Simply drinking 20g fresh Indian gooseberry juice daily helps in eliminating intestinal worms.

• To relieve colic pains, drink a cup of Indian gooseberry juice mixed with a teaspoon of powdered fennel seeds.

• Drinking a cup of water mixed with two teaspoons each of amla juice, lime juice and honey is helpful in getting rid of nervousness and anxiety. Moreover, it increases appetite and improves sexual vitality. Consume this solution regularly in the morning on an empty stomach for a few months.

• Another benefit of amla or Indian gooseberry fruit is that it can be used to relieve urinary problems. For this, you need to soak dried Indian gooseberry and raisins in water overnight.Soak them in separate containers. Next, mash them in the same water and strain the liquid. Drink this solution for a few days.

5] Ginger

Ginger (1)
Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal.

Ginger cultivation began in South Asia and has since spread to East Africa and the Caribbean. It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger.Ginger has been used as a natural remedy for many ailments for centuries. researchers around the world are finding that ginger works wonders in the treatment of everything from cancer to migraines.


Here are the List of Benefits of Ginger in our Health:

Morning Sickness
                    A review of several studies has concluded that ginger is just as effective as vitamin B6 in the treatment of morning sickness.

Motion Sickness Remedy
Ginger has been shown to be an effective remedy for the nausea associated with motion sickness.

Reduces Pain and Inflammation
                  One study showed that ginger has anti-inflammatory properties and is a powerful natural painkiller.

Heartburn Relief
Ginger has long been used as a natural heartburn remedy. It is most often taken in the form of tea for this purpose.

Cold and Flu Prevention and Treatment
                  Ginger has long been used as a natural treatment for colds and the flu. Many people also find ginger to be helpful in the case of stomach flus or food poisoning, which is not surprising given the positive effects ginger has upon the digestive tract.

Migraine Relief
Research has shown that ginger may provide migraine relief due to its ability to stop prostaglandins from causing pain and inflammation in blood vessels.

Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy
                 A study done on diabetic rats found that those rats given ginger had a reduced incidence of diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage).

6] Aloe Vera


Medical use of Aloe Vera range between simple cases, such as for example cuts, the more complex, such as for example illness. How could an answer for some of our illnesses may be grown in our own backyard. It is not necessary to invest in costly drugs or take to outdated methods is the only way you might live a healthy life.

                        The aloe plant has existed for thousands of years and was a way to obtain help for the ancestors. Generations have benefited using this wonderful aloe and continue steadily to achieve this even today and age. I even remember once within my childhood when my mother has a leaf from the plant aloe gel plus it applied to a wound that I learned to play football. The wound heals quickly to my surprise, less scarring.Below are a few medical use of aloe vera.

1] Healing and relief of sunburn, as non-piercing. Aloe helps cooling properties such as for example menthol.
2] Boil the leaves with water and inhale steam to greatly help better breathing for asthma attacks.
3] You might be pepsin, which aids digestion, relieves irritation of the digestive system burns up, ulcers and heart.
4] It acts as a tonic, a broad immunity and combat diseases has increased.
5] Increases blood circulation and increases oxygen supply to your cells.
6] It reduces cholesterol and triglycerides, leading to a healthy heart and preventing cardiovascular disease.
7] Aloe vera gel made cuts, burns up and scrapes heal faster.
8] It is a good detoxifier, as well as perhaps the most effective natural colon cleanser around. 9] Prevents constipation and is an effective blood purifier.
10] It helps to lighten the skin of acne, allergies, age spots and blemishes.
11] Inlammation and swelling of arthritic joints, or just known as arthritis, can the juice drinking aloe vera may be mitigated.

7] Brahmi


The word Brahmi means the Goddess of intelligence. It has been extensively used in Ayurveda for the last thousands of years. Brahmi has been mentioned in the historic medicinal book ” Sushrut samhita “. Chinese people use this in their traditional medicines for youthfulness and longevity of life. In Sanskrit it is called Kapotavanga, Somavalli, Saraswati, Suvarchala, Mahoushadhi,Surashreshta, Vaidhatree, Divyateja, Varaa, Parameshtinee and Soumyaa. It is called Ondelaga(Kannada-the one with single leaf), Timare(Tulu), Vallarai(Tamil), Mandook ,Brahmichattu(Telugu), Muttal(Malayalam), Brahmi(Hindi), Sooryaphalavalli(Marathi), Ekpanni(Konkani).

It is a small plant with a stem and single leaf resembling the ear of mouse. It spreads very fast in low wet areas. In rainy season,it grows well. It is commonly seen in the hilly areas by the side of the road from Haridwar to Badri. Brahmi that we get here is the best one amongst all.

Medicinal values -

* It helps in the growth of nerve cells. It helps to reduce mental tension. It removes depression. It improves the remembering power of the brain.
* It helps in the development of the cells of hair follicles. Hence it is used in the production of hair oils. We see it in the advertisement of Dabur – the famous ayurvedic company of India.It also helps to get rid from dandruf.
* Eating 4 – 5 leaves of Brahmi helps in correcting the voice especially in children with speech deformity.
*Take the juice of the leaves. Rub it to the base of the hair.Keep it for 30 minutes and then take bath. This removes dandruf.
* It improves digestive capacity and removes acidity when taken orally.
* Brahmi contains kerotin, amino acids and vitamins. Hence it acts as a nutritious food.
* It is also used in epilepsy and skin diseases.

8] Sandalwood (Chandan)



The soothing aroma of sandalwood benefits the mind by helping it relax. Moreover, this herb has a cooling effect. It is beneficial in curing a number of issues like prickly heat, pimples, leucoderma, abdominal pain, headache, fever, and genitorurinary infections.Sandalwood or Chandan is considered sacred and holy as per Hindu mythology. Thus, it is used in several religious ceremonies. The herb has a sweet, woodsy smell. Usually, sandalwood heartwood and essential oil are used for medicinal purposes.

Scientific Name: Santalum Album L.
Other Names: White sandalwood, Yellow Sandalwood, East Indian Sandalwood, White Saunders, Santal, Tan Xiang, Sandanam, Srigandapuma, Sukhad, Sandal Safaid

Native Region

Sandalwood (Chandan) is native to India. It is primarily grown in India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, China, Philippines and Australia. This herb belongs to the Santalaceae family.

Healing Properties

Sandalwood has anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, anti phlogistic, antiseptic, anti-microbial, antipyretic, hypotensive, carminative, emollient, demulcent, cicatrisant, sedative, antidepressant, aphrodisiac, and diuretic properties. It also inhibits herpes simplex virus.The pleasant aroma of this herb relieves anxiety and stress. It makes you feel calm, boosts memory and improves concentration.Thus, it is used in healing issues like nervousness, restlessness, headache and insomnia. Plus, sandalwood benefits in reducing nervous and circulatory inflammations. Furthermore, the herb improves circulation of blood throughout the body. It supports the cardiovascular   system   and reduces heart pain. Red sandalwood helps control type-2 diabetes. Sandalwood  (Chandan) also aids in digestion and cures heartburn, nausea,  indigestion, upset stomach and gas. Plus, it is helpful in the natural treatment of Cystitis, Haematuria, Gonorrhea, and symptoms like pain and burning sensation during urination.

In addition, sandalwood has expectorant qualities effecting in relieving respiratory tract infections. It helps in dealing with chronic bronchitis,  laryngitis, cough, cold and flu. Besides, this herb balances sebum production and hence used as a natural home remedy for skin care.Benefits of sandalwood or Chandan can be derived from sandalwood essential oil as well. It can either be applied externally or taken internally. When using this oil on skin, dilute it by mixing carrier oil.

Sandalwood oil blends well with essential oils of lavender, rose, geranuim, cedarwood, bergamot, ylang-ylang, basil, myrrh, etc. This essential oil also helps manage the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, this aromatic herb is under the threat of extinction.

Medicinal Uses of Sandalwood (Chandan)

• Sandalwood home remedies for beauty care involve the application of a paste prepared from half teaspoon each of sandalwood powder and turmeric, water (enough to form a paste).

It helps reduce acne. Acne scars can be removed by regularly applying a mixture of sandalwood powder, coconut oil and lime juice (taken in equal parts). Leave the paste on skin overnight.

• When dealing with pimples, boils, or psoriasis, boil three cups of water mixed with a teaspoon of sandalwood powder. When the liquid reduces to half, mix some rose water and sugar in it. Drink this solution three times in a day.

• Sandalwood benefits in getting rid of greasy skin when it is mixed with equal amounts of fuller’s earth and rose water. Leave the mask on face for about half an hour and then wash it off.

• Applying a combination of sandalwood powder and rose water serves as an easy natural cure for excessive sweating. This sandalwood remedy lightens skin color as well. Mixture of sandalwood, water, lemon, yogurt and rose water helps reduce blemishes.

• Mix some plain water or rose water in sandalwood powder to for a paste. Take one teaspoon of this mixture and add a teaspoon of camphor (Kapoor) in it. Smear this paste on the affected areas to cure eczema.

• Applying sandal paste mixed with crushed holy basil leaves (Tulsi) relieves headache. Dilute sandalwood oil applied on forehead can cure headaches caused by heat.

• Add a tablespoon of rose water in three tablespoons of sandalwood powder. Apply this mixture on skin to reduce prickly heat problem.

• Application of sandalwood paste mixed with a teaspoon of lime juice relieves skin irritation and allergy. Regularly using a combination of four tablespoons of sandalwood oil, twp tablespoons of almond oil and five tablespoons of coconut oil on skin heals sunburn over a period of time. It also softens the skin.

• A mixture of red sandalwood powder, rose water and glycerin works as an efficient home remedy for reducing wrinkles. Apply this mixture for about 20 minutes daily.

• Uneasiness caused by high blood pressure can be reduced by taking a combination of one teaspoon each of sandalwood powder, coriander leaves and Emblic Myrobalan (Amla), all soaked in a cup of water overnight. Strain and consume the solution for a few days.

• Daily consuming a cup of water mixed with half a teaspoon of sandalwood powder is useful in reducing pain in heart. Follow this treatment three times in a day.

• Psychotropic benefits of sandalwood can be derived through aromatherapy. Inhaling a cloth soaked in a combination of 15 drops sandalwood oil, 10 drops chamomile oil and 5 drops lemon oil induces sleep.Besides, you can add six drops of sandalwood oil, chamomile oil and lavender oil in warm bath water and soak in it.

• Having a cup of milk mixed with half a teaspoon of sandalwood powder helps in the natural treatment of urinary tract infection. Follow this therapy two times in a day.

• When dealing with cystisis, add five drops of sandalwood oil and a pinch of Bishop’s weed (Ajwain) in a cup of milk and consume the mixture.

• In case there is blood in urine, soak a teaspoon of sandal wood powder in a glass of water, leave it overnight and drink in the morning.

• Prepare a solution by adding one part of sandalwood oil in ten parts of water. Spray this liquid on feet and socks to get rid of food odor. You can also use this solution for cleaning wounds.

• Put six drops of sandalwood oil in a bowl of water and soak a piece of cloth in it. Place this cloth on throat for 15 minutes to heal bronchitis, cough, and throat discomfort.

• Add a few drops of sandalwood oil in a bowl of warm water and spray this solution on hair. When dealing with smelly hair, spray this solution on your hair as a natural hair perfume or use it as a final rinse after washing your lustrous locks.

• Boil a glass of water mixed with one teaspoon each of sandalwood and Emblic Myrobalan (Amla) powder. Strain and drink this home medicine as a natural remedy for diabetes.

 9] Shatavari, Asparagus racemosus

Sierra Exif JPEG

Latin name: Asparagus racemosus

English name: Wild asparagus

Sanskrit name: Shatavari, Abhiru

Indian name: Satavar, Satimuli

Medicinal parts used: Roots

Shatavari is found in the Indian forests, the roots of which are of high medicinal value. The roots are used in Ayurvedic medicine, following a regimen of processing and drying. It is used as an anodyne, aphrodisiac and galactogogue.

Shatavari is considered to be the main Ayurvedic rejuvenating female tonic for overall health and vitality. The reputed adaptogenic effects of Shatavari may be attributed to its concentrations of saponins, known as Shatavarins. In Sanskrit, Shatavari means “she who possesses a hundred husbands.”

It is an armed, climbing shrub with woody erected stems and recurved or rarely straight spines, young stems very delicate, brittle and smooth. It is common throughout India and the Himalayas. It prefers to take root in gravelly, rocky soils, high up in piedmont plains (1,300 – 1,400 meters elev.).

Therapeutic use:

  • Shatavari has been found beneficial in treating convalescence, cancer (is used to strengthen the patient after chemotherapy), cough, diarrhoea, dehydration, dysentery, chronic fever, bronchitis, hyperacidity, herpes, impotence, infertility, AIDS, lung abscess, muscle spasms, menopause, rheumatism, stiffness of joints, and stomach ulcers.
  • The herb is also used for increasing lactation in nursing mothers, and helps in blood purification, treating hormonal imbalances in women and nourishes the ovum.
  • The ayurvedic herb is also used in treating gastrointestinal disorders and is used in cleaning up and healing wounds.
  • Shatavari is also well known due to its rejuvenative properties and is useful in treating infertility and is in other words called “hundred husbands”. It is considered as an important ayurvedic medicine for women.
  • Shatavari is a diuretic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac and a nutritive tonic.

10] Cinnamon


Cinnamon is a herb traditionally used by many ancient cultures. It is indicated for a variety of ailments including gastrointestinal problems, urinary infections, relieving symptoms of colds and flu and has remarkable anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties. Some studies have shown that Cinnamon helps people with diabetes metabolise sugar better.
It is used in flatulent dyspepsia, dyspepsia with nausea, intestinal colic and digestive atony associated with cold & debilitated conditions. It is known to relieve nausea and vomiting, and because of its mild astringency it is particularly used for infantile diarrhea.

Cinnamon warms and stimulates the digestive system, useful in weak digestion, colic, griping, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, wind and distension. The tannins have an astringent action, stemming bleeding in nosebleeds, heavy periods and resolving diarrhea and catarrhal congestion. Cinnamon may help to

Soothe an upset stomach:Cinnamon extracts have been used medically to treat gastrointestinal problems and to help calm the stomach. Cinnamon is a carminative, an agent that helps break up intestinal gas that has traditionally been used to combat diarrhea and morning sickness. Both test-tube and some animal studies have found that cinnamon may help to relieve mild abdominal discomfort caused by excess gas.

Clear up urinary-tract infections: One German study showed that Cinnamon “suppresses completely” the cause of most urinary-tract infections (Escherichia coli bacteria) and the fungus responsible for vaginal yeast infections (Candida albicans).

Allow diabetics to use less insulin:Some studies have shown that Cinnamon helps people with diabetes metabolise sugar better. In adult-onset (Type II) diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin, but the body can’t use it efficiently to break down blood sugar.

Aid digestion:Cinnamon contains compounds called catechins, which help relieve nausea. The volatile oil in cinnamon bark may also help the body to process food by breaking down fats during digestion.

Kill many disease-causing fungi and viruses:Preliminary results from test tube and animal studies suggest that cinnamon oil and cinnamon extract have anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and anti-parasitic properties. For example, cinnamon has been found to be active against Candida albicans, the fungus responsible for vaginal yeast infections and thrush (oral yeast infection), Helicobacter pylori (the bacteria that causes stomach ulcers), and even head lice.

Relieve Pain:Cinnamon is considered a pain-killer due to its prostaglandin-inhibiting action.

Relieve Colds and Flu:In both India and Europe, cinnamon has been traditionally taken as a warming herb for “cold” conditions, often in combination with ginger (Zingiber officinale). The herb stimulates the circulation, especially to the fingers and toes and has been used for arthritis. Cinnamon is also a traditional remedy for aching muscles and other symptoms of viral conditions such as colds and flue.


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