Category: Improved Methods of Agriculture

Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science

Topic:- Improved Methods Of Agriculture

Subtopic:-Types of Fertilizers

Source:- Wikipedia


Types of Fertilizers

                 Most of the people do not realize the adverse effects of Chemical fertilizers. As it need not to say that chemical fertilizer’s main ingredients are chemicals which have more of disadvantages than advantages. Chemical Fertilizers affect your lawn, your family, your pets and ground water. Looking at the cons of Chemical Fertilizers:

  1. Chemical Fertilizers are soluble in water hence quick release and due to which plants get only half of the benefits.
  2. With Chemical  fertilizers plants grows shorter roots and relies upon fertilizers to sustain itself.
  3. Chemically maintained soils have high acidity, which is not good for grasses to grow.
  4. EPA registration of a chemical does not imply that the chemical has been proven to be safe. Many used regularly by lawn-maintenance companies are possible carcinogens and could also cause nervous system damage.
  5. High nitrogen in chemical fertilizer may lead to lower self sufficiency of the soil.

Benefits  of Chemical Fertilizers:

  1. With nitrogen rich chemical fertilizers, plants grow faster and more greener then without chemical fertilizers.
  2. Quick pest control due to -icides.

Now we know clearly about the pros and cons of chemical fertilizers. But we still need to know about the Natural Fertilizers / Organic Fertilizer. Only after that we will be able to decide which fertilizer we want to choose for our plants. Lets first looks at the cons of Natural Fertilizers:

  1. Natural Fertilizers takes bit longer to show the results.
  2. Chemical Free weed care don’t completely eradicate weeds.

Now let’s have a look at the advantages of Natural Fertilizers / Organic Fertilizers:

  1. Natural Fertilizers are not soluble in water due to which they have slow release and hence have long term effects.
  2. Slow release by natural fertilizers have less effects on the carbohydrate reserves of the lawn.
  3. By using natural fertilizers have plants have longer and stronger roots because of moderate nitrogen content.
  4. Natural Fertilizers supports the growth of Micro organisms. Which will increase the rate of decomposition.
  5. Natural Fertilizers do not have any acidic ingredients, hence no increase in pH of soil. Hence the micro organics remains there in the soil for its maintenance. This is nature’s way to retain the soil fertility.
  6. As chemical fertilizers are chemical free, hence they have no harmful effect on your family, your pets or on the ground water.




Fourth Standard

Subject:-General Science

Topic:- Improved Methods Of Agriculture

Subtopic:-Modern Methods of Irrigation

Source:- Wikipedia


Modern Methods of Irrigation

1] Surface irrigation

In surface irrigation systems water is moving over the land by simple gravity flow in order to wet it and to infiltrate into the soil. They can be subdivided into furrow, borderstrip or basin irrigation.

2] Drip Irrigation


                           This is known as the most water efficient method of irrigation. Water drops right near the root zone of a plant in a dripping motion. If the system is installed properly you can steadily reduce the loss of water through evaporation and runoff.

3] Sprinkler irrigation

In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns. A system utilizing sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system.

Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle. Guns are similar to rotors, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in² (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9 inches (10 to 50 mm). Guns are used not only for irrigation, but also for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.

4] Ditch Irrigation


                               Ditch Irrigation is a rather traditional method, where ditches are dug out and seedlings are planted in rows. The plantings are watered by placing canals or furrows in between the rows of plants. Siphon tubes are used to move the water from the main ditch to the canals. This system of irrigation was once very popular in the USA, but most have been replaced with modern systems.

5] Rotary Systems


                               This method of irrigation is best suited for larger areas, for the sprinklers can reach distances of up to 100 feet. The word “Rotary” is indicative of the mechanical driven sprinklers moving in a circular motion, hence reaching greater distances. This system waters a larger area with small amounts of water over a longer period of time.